Report about first finding of introduced Asian Truffle (T. indicum) in a black truffle (T. melanosporum) orchard outplanted in USA
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The Asian black trufﬂe Tuber indicum is morphologically and phylogenetically similar to the European black trufﬂe Tuber melanosporum. T. indicum is considered a threat to T. melanosporum trufﬁculture due to its presumed competitiveness and broad host compatibility. Recently, in independent events, T. indicum was found fruiting in a forest in Oregon, USA, and was detected as ectomycorrhizas within a trufﬂe orchard established with trees believed to have been inoculated with T. melanosporum. We used haplotype networking to assess intraspeciﬁc ITS rDNA diversity among Asian and North American T. indicum group B isolates. To further assess the potential of T. indicum to spread onto native host plants it was inoculated onto seedlings of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and pecan (Carya illinoinensis, Juglandaceae), species endemic to North America. T. indicum formed ectomycorrhizas on both host species examined. This supports previous studies from Europe and Asia that indicate T. indicum has a broad host spectrum, an ecological trait that may be important to its invasion ecology. This is the ﬁrst report of T. indicum introductions in North America and of this species fruiting outside of its native range. To help prevent further unintended trufﬂe introductions we recommend that fruitbodies used by the trufﬂe industry for inoculating seedlings ﬁrst be identiﬁed with DNA methods.